The Markets

North Korea may be a little country, but it can churn up big trouble.

The possibility that verbal hostilities between the United States and North Korea could trigger geopolitical conflict had investors on the run last week. In the United States, the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index fell by 1.4 percent, the Dow Jones Industrial Average lost 1.1 percent, and the NASDAQ Composite finished 1.5 percent lower.

Financial Times explained:

“The sell-off came as U.S. President Donald Trump escalated the war of words against the North Korean regime’s accelerated [program] of nuclear testing. Mr. Trump tweeted on Friday, “military solutions are now fully in place, locked and loaded, should North Korea act unwisely.”

While major U.S. indices headed south, the CBOE Volatility Index (VIX) – also known as Wall Street’s fear gauge – headed north. The VIX, which has been flirting with historic lows for much of the year, rose 44 percent in a single day, reported CNBC.

Stock markets in Europe and Asia were also affected by the saber rattling. National indices across Europe suffered weekly losses of 2.2 percent (Sweden) to 3.5 percent (Spain), according to Barron’s. In the Asia-Pacific region, India’s Sensex 30 lost 3.4 percent and South Korea’s Kospi was down 3.2 percent for the week.

Geopolitical concerns overshadowed some important economic news in the United States. Inflation, as measured by the U.S. Consumer Price Index, rose very little in July. In fact, consumer prices have been soft for five straight months, reported MarketWatch. Persistently low inflation could affect the Federal Reserve’s plan to raise interest rates this year. The Fed’s goal is 2 percent inflation.

 

ARE ELECTRIC ENGINES THE TORTOISE COMPETING WITH THE COMBUSTION ENGINE’S HARE? In the late 1800s, the Paris-Rouen race for horseless carriages included 102 vehicles fueled by steam, petrol, electricity, compressed air, and hydraulics, reports The Economist. Not a single electric engine made it to the starting blocks. (The internal combustion engine won.)

Oh, how times have changed!

The International Energy Agency’s Global EV Outlook 2017 reported:

“New registrations of electric cars hit a new record in 2016, with over 750 thousand sales worldwide. With a 29 percent market share, Norway has incontestably achieved the most successful deployment of electric cars in terms of market share, globally. It is followed by the Netherlands, with a 6.4 percent electric car market share, and Sweden with 3.4 percent. The People’s Republic of China (hereafter, “China”), France, and the United Kingdom all have electric car market shares close to 1.5 percent. In 2016, China was by far the largest electric car market, accounting for more than 40 percent of the electric cars sold in the world and more than double the amount sold in the United States.”

Financial Times reported the UBS analysis suggests the market may be at an inflection point as the total cost of ownership for electric vehicles may become comparable to that of combustion engine vehicles as early as 2018 in Europe, 2023 in China, and 2025 in the United States.

Even though their popularity is growing, electric cars comprise a small portion of the market today. UBS expects electric cars to account for 14 percent of the global market, and more than one-third of the European auto market, by 2025.

Weekly Focus – Think About It

“Though most of them sit idle, America’s car and [truck] engines can produce ten times as much energy as its power stations. The internal combustion engine is the mightiest motor in history.”
–The Economist, August 12, 2017

 

* These views are those of Peak Advisor Alliance, and not the presenting Representative or the Representative’s Broker/Dealer, and should not be construed as investment advice.
* This newsletter was prepared by Peak Advisor Alliance. Peak Advisor Alliance is not affiliated with the named broker/dealer.
* Government bonds and Treasury Bills are guaranteed by the U.S. government as to the timely payment of principal and interest and, if held to maturity, offer a fixed rate of return and fixed principal value. However, the value of fund shares is not guaranteed and will fluctuate.
* Corporate bonds are considered higher risk than government bonds but normally offer a higher yield and are subject to market, interest rate and credit risk as well as additional risks based on the quality of issuer coupon rate, price, yield, maturity, and redemption features.
* The Standard & Poor’s 500 (S&P 500) is an unmanaged group of securities considered to be representative of the stock market in general. You cannot invest directly in this index.
* All indices referenced are unmanaged. Unmanaged index returns do not reflect fees, expenses, or sales charges. Index performance is not indicative of the performance of any investment.
* The Dow Jones Global ex-U.S. Index covers approximately 95% of the market capitalization of the 45 developed and emerging countries included in the Index.
* The 10-year Treasury Note represents debt owed by the United States Treasury to the public. Since the U.S. Government is seen as a risk-free borrower, investors use the 10-year Treasury Note as a benchmark for the long-term bond market.
* Gold represents the afternoon gold price as reported by the London Bullion Market Association. The gold price is set twice daily by the London Gold Fixing Company at 10:30 and 15:00 and is expressed in U.S. dollars per fine troy ounce.
* The Bloomberg Commodity Index is designed to be a highly liquid and diversified benchmark for the commodity futures market. The Index is composed of futures contracts on 19 physical commodities and was launched on July 14, 1998.
* The DJ Equity All REIT Total Return Index measures the total return performance of the equity subcategory of the Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) industry as calculated by Dow Jones.
* Yahoo! Finance is the source for any reference to the performance of an index between two specific periods.
* Opinions expressed are subject to change without notice and are not intended as investment advice or to predict future performance.
* Economic forecasts set forth may not develop as predicted and there can be no guarantee that strategies promoted will be successful.
* Past performance does not guarantee future results. Investing involves risk, including loss of principal.
* You cannot invest directly in an index.
* Consult your financial professional before making any investment decision.
* Stock investing involves risk including loss of principal.

 

Sources:
https://www.ft.com/content/44ce541e-5e13-365a-8918-2857025b8cb0 (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/08-14-17_FinancialTimes-S_and_P_Clocks_Worst_Week_Since_March_Despite_Fridays_Bounce-Footnote_1.pdf)
https://www.cnbc.com/2017/08/11/all-time-record-options-bets-on-volatility-spook-wall-street-over-leverage-risk.html
https://www.cnbc.com/2017/07/25/heres-what-happened-the-last-time-the-vix-traded-this-low.html
http://www.barrons.com/mdc/public/page/9_3063-economicCalendar.html (Click on U.S. & Intl Recaps, “Geopolitical worries deflate stocks”) (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/08-14-17_Barrons-Global_Stock_Market_Recap-Footnote_4.pdf)
http://www.marketwatch.com/story/us-consumer-inflation-remains-soft-in-july-cpi-shows-2017-08-11
https://www.federalreserve.gov/faqs/money_12848.htm

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July 10, 2017

The Markets 

Things you may want to know…

Last Friday, Financial Times (FT) published, ‘Five markets charts that matter for investors.’ Among the issues addressed in the charts were:

The bond market bear watch. The yield on 10-year German Bunds (Germany’s government bonds) reached an 18-month high of 0.58 percent recently. Yields rose after the European Central Bank’s Mario Draghi indicated its stimulus efforts would end at some point.

When bond yields rise, bond values fall, and that makes rising interest rates quite a significant event for anyone who holds lower yielding bonds. In the United States, 10-year U.S. Treasuries moved to a seven-week high last week and then dipped lower following the release of the Federal Open Market Committee meeting minutes, reported CNBC.com.

• Financial companies gaining favor. During the past month, U.S. stock markets have seen a sector rotation. FT reported:

“…S&P financials have gained some 6 percent, with tech sliding almost 4 percent. That still leaves financials lagging behind the S&P 500 for the year and well behind the roughly 17 percent gain for tech. A similar story has unfolded in Europe between banks and tech.”

Investors’ appetite for financial companies may reflect the belief higher interest rates are ahead. Banks and other financial firms generally benefit when interest rates rise. Investor’s Business Daily reported

“Several Wall Street giants have warned of weak trading revenue in Q2, continuing the lackluster trend in 2017…Still, bank stocks large and small have been leading in recent weeks, helped by higher bond yields and massive buyback and dividend plans.”

Last week, the unemployment rate in the United States rose from 4.3 to 4.4 percent. It was good news according to an expert cited by Barron’s, “…the rise in labor force participation indicates slack remains in the labor market.” That may be the reason wages showed little improvement.

  

IT DOESN’T APPEAR TO BE COMMON KNOWLEDGE BUT there may be an affordable car crisis in the United States. The latest Bankrate.com Car Affordability Study found:

“…typical households in most of America’s larger cities don’t earn enough to afford the average new vehicle, under a common budgeting rule for buyers… The ‘20/4/10’ rule says you should aim to put down at least 20 percent of a vehicle’s purchase price, take out a car loan for no longer than four years, and devote no more than 10 percent of your annual income to car payments, interest, and insurance. If you can’t stay within those lines, you can’t afford the car.”

The only major city where a new car remains affordable is Washington, D.C.!

For some, the obvious solution is choosing a less expensive model. For others, the answer is buying a used vehicle. For the latter group, here’s some bad news: even an average-priced used car – nationally, the average price is about $19,200 – is unaffordable for households in eight of the 25 largest cities.

Leasing is also an option; one that may have helped create an oversupply of used cars. In July, Automotive News reported:

“…millions [of] cars that were leased two or three years ago, many of them used compact and midsized cars with low mileage, are heading toward auction lots and used car dealerships. That surge in supply threatens to depress prices for new and used vehicles, raising the risk of losses for automakers and finance companies on lease deals. It also undercuts the value of cars customers want to trade in for a new vehicle.”

The rising popularity of ride-sharing and car-sharing, and the introduction of self-driving vehicles, may also depress prices. In fact, some automakers have introduced their own ride-sharing services.

Weekly Focus – Think About It 
“A man is rich in proportion to the number of things he can afford to let alone.”–Henry David Thoreau, American philosopher and naturalist

* These views are those of Peak Advisor Alliance, and not the presenting Representative or the Representative’s Broker/Dealer, and should not be construed as investment advice.* This newsletter was prepared by Peak Advisor Alliance. Peak Advisor Alliance is not affiliated with the named broker/dealer.* Government bonds and Treasury Bills are guaranteed by the U.S. government as to the timely payment of principal and interest and, if held to maturity, offer a fixed rate of return and fixed principal value.  However, the value of fund shares is not guaranteed and will fluctuate.* Corporate bonds are considered higher risk than government bonds but normally offer a higher yield and are subject to market, interest rate and credit risk as well as additional risks based on the quality of issuer coupon rate, price, yield, maturity, and redemption features.* The Standard & Poor’s 500 (S&P 500) is an unmanaged group of securities considered to be representative of the stock market in general. You cannot invest directly in this index.* All indices referenced are unmanaged. Unmanaged index returns do not reflect fees, expenses, or sales charges. Index performance is not indicative of the performance of any investment.* The Dow Jones Global ex-U.S. Index covers approximately 95% of the market capitalization of the 45 developed and emerging countries included in the Index.* The 10-year Treasury Note represents debt owed by the United States Treasury to the public. Since the U.S. Government is seen as a risk-free borrower, investors use the 10-year Treasury Note as a benchmark for the long-term bond market.* Gold represents the afternoon gold price as reported by the London Bullion Market Association. The gold price is set twice daily by the London Gold Fixing Company at 10:30 and 15:00 and is expressed in U.S. dollars per fine troy ounce.* The Bloomberg Commodity Index is designed to be a highly liquid and diversified benchmark for the commodity futures market. The Index is composed of futures contracts on 19 physical commodities and was launched on July 14, 1998.* The DJ Equity All REIT Total Return Index measures the total return performance of the equity subcategory of the Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) industry as calculated by Dow Jones.* Yahoo! Finance is the source for any reference to the performance of an index between two specific periods.* Opinions expressed are subject to change without notice and are not intended as investment advice or to predict future performance.* Economic forecasts set forth may not develop as predicted and there can be no guarantee that strategies promoted will be successful.* Past performance does not guarantee future results. Investing involves risk, including loss of principal.* You cannot invest directly in an index.* Consult your financial professional before making any investment decision.* Stock investing involves risk including loss of principal.

Sources:

https://www.ft.com/content/c4de73e2-17a1-11e7-9c35-0dd2cb31823a (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/07-10-17_FinancialTimes-Five_Markets_Charts_that_Matter_for_Investors-Footnote_1.pdf)http://www.cnbc.com/2017/07/06/why-a-surge-in-bond-yields-could-be-around-the-corner.htmlhttps://www.investors.com/news/q2-earnings-season-why-analysts-are-so-bullish/ (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/07-10-17_InvestorsBusinessDailyNews-Earnings_Season_on_Tap-Here_are_the_3_Top_Sectors-Footnote_3.pdf)http://www.barrons.com/articles/june-jobs-report-payrolls-climb-but-wages-dont-1499431826?mod=BOL_hp_highlight_1?mod=BOL_hp_highlight_1 (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/07-10-17_Barrons-June_Jobs_Report-Payrolls_Climb_More_than_Expected_But_Wages_Dont-Footnote_4.pdf)http://www.bankrate.com/auto/new-car-affordability-survey/http://www.autonews.com/article/20170707/RETAIL04/170709866/automakers-auctions-align-to-prop-up-used-car-priceshttps://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/08/technology/automakers-race-to-get-ahead-of-silicon-valley-on-car-sharing.htmlhttps://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/h/henrydavid108303.html

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July 3, 2017

The Markets

This is the way the quarter ends – with a central bank scare.

Central bankers are stodgy. They speak carefully. For many, reading the words ‘Federal Reserve’ is enough to cause boredom to set in and web surfing to ensue.

Last week, though, the European Central Bank and Bank of England cracked the ‘open secret’ (i.e., central banks will provide less stimulus and increase rates at some point), and investors did not like what they heard.

Central bankers were quick to say they didn’t necessarily mean what people had heard, but the rumor of less accommodative monetary policy was already moving markets. Barron’s wrote:

“But make no mistake: Last week was a game changer. Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen fretted about the high level of asset prices, the Bank of England’s Mark Carney hinted at a rate hike, and Mario Draghi suggested the European Central Bank could be nearing the end of its bond buying…The market didn’t take it sitting down. Long-term Treasury yields surged, resulting in a wider spread off of short-term bond yields.”

A wider spread between short- and long-term Treasuries could be good news. The Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland explained:

“The slope of the yield curve – the difference between the yields on short- and long-term maturity bonds – has achieved some notoriety as a simple forecaster of economic growth. The rule of thumb is that an inverted yield curve (short rates above long rates) indicates a recession in about a year, and yield curve inversions have preceded each of the last seven recessions…”

Central bankers comments affected U.S. stock markets, too. The technology sector lost its allure, while the possibility of rising interest rates made the financials sector more attractive. It didn’t hurt that all major institutions passed the Fed’s stress tests for the first time. That could translate into share buybacks and higher dividends, reported Financial Times.

There were some notable statistics during the second quarter of 2017. For instance:

Investors were preternaturally calm
Throughout second quarter, investors have been confident the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index would offer a smooth ride. The CBOE Volatility Index (VIX), a.k.a. the fear gauge, has only closed below 10 sixteen times; seven occurred during the second quarter of 2017.

Consumer sentiment was quite positive
Consumers were feeling highly optimistic throughout the quarter. In June, the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Survey reported, “Although consumer confidence slipped to its lowest level since Trump was elected, the overall level still remains quite favorable. The average level of the Sentiment Index during the first half of 2017 was 96.8, the best half-year average since the second half of 2000…”

Investor sentiment shifted into neutral
Last week, the number of investors who were neutral (rather than bullish or bearish) about markets hit its highest level in a year. The AAII Blog reported:

“This year’s record highs for the S&P 500 and the NASDAQ have encouraged some individual investors, but the Trump administration’s ability (or lack thereof) to move forward on economic and tax policy remains on the forefront of many others’ minds. Also playing a role in influencing sentiment are earnings, valuations, concerns about the possibility of a pullback in stock prices, and interest rates/monetary policy.”

The U.S. economy appears to be growing, albeit slowly. Last week, the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta forecast real GDP (Gross Domestic Product) growth during the second quarter of 2017 at 2.7 percent.

 
YOU SAY POTATO, I SAY POTATO. A persistent debate among the geek set is how to pronounce the abbreviation for Graphics Interchange Format (GIF). You know, GIFs, the animated images you see online. Graphics starts with a hard ‘g’ sound, but pronunciation conventions suggest that ‘g’ makes a soft sound before the vowel ‘i.’ The Economist wrote:

“Some questions will be pondered for all eternity. What is the meaning of life? Where do you go when you die? And, even more puzzlingly, what is the right way to pronounce “GIF?”…Debates over whether it begins with a hard “g,” as in “gift,” or a soft one, as in “giraffe,” can make discussions about religion or politics look civil by comparison. Well aware of the risk that taking a side could lead to protests, boycotts, or worse, the Oxford English Dictionary and Merriam-Webster have maintained strict neutrality. They proclaim that both pronunciations are acceptable, betraying nary a hint of favoritism.”

It’s interesting that dictionaries, those arbiters of correct spelling and pronunciation, would stake out neutral ground. After all, in the early days of the United States correct spelling was open to interpretation. In the American Constitution, the word ‘choose’ is spelled ‘chuse’ and ‘Pennsylvania’ was spelled ‘Pensylvania’ (the Liberty Bell inscription has one ‘n,’ as well). Also, ‘defense’ was spelled ‘defence.’

The first American dictionary wasn’t published until 1806. Its author, Noah Webster, decided many spelling conventions were artificial, so he imposed the standards he preferred, changing ‘musick’ to ‘music,’ ‘centre’ to ‘center,’ and ‘women to wimmen.’ Not all of his changes were accepted.

This year, in an effort to resolve the GIF issue once and for all, a forum for computer programmers surveyed 50,000 users in 200 countries. Sixty-five percent believed a hard ‘g’ pronunciation was correct, while 26 percent believed the soft ‘g’ was right.

The survey results inflamed soft ‘g’ users, who claim it was rigged.

Weekly Focus – Think About It

“My seven-year-old grandson sleeps just down the hall from me, and he wakes up a lot of mornings and he says, ‘You know, this could be the best day ever.’ And other times, in the middle of the night, he calls out in a tremulous voice, ‘Nana, will you ever get sick and die?’ I think this pretty much says it for me and most of the people I know, that we’re a mixed grill of happy anticipation and dread.”
–Anne Lamott, American novelist and non-fiction writer

* These views are those of Peak Advisor Alliance, and not the presenting Representative or the Representative’s Broker/Dealer, and should not be construed as investment advice.
* This newsletter was prepared by Peak Advisor Alliance. Peak Advisor Alliance is not affiliated with the named broker/dealer.
* Government bonds and Treasury Bills are guaranteed by the U.S. government as to the timely payment of principal and interest and, if held to maturity, offer a fixed rate of return and fixed principal value. However, the value of fund shares is not guaranteed and will fluctuate.
* Corporate bonds are considered higher risk than government bonds but normally offer a higher yield and are subject to market, interest rate and credit risk as well as additional risks based on the quality of issuer coupon rate, price, yield, maturity, and redemption features.
* The Standard & Poor’s 500 (S&P 500) is an unmanaged group of securities considered to be representative of the stock market in general. You cannot invest directly in this index.
* All indices referenced are unmanaged. Unmanaged index returns do not reflect fees, expenses, or sales charges. Index performance is not indicative of the performance of any investment.
* The Dow Jones Global ex-U.S. Index covers approximately 95% of the market capitalization of the 45 developed and emerging countries included in the Index.
* The 10-year Treasury Note represents debt owed by the United States Treasury to the public. Since the U.S. Government is seen as a risk-free borrower, investors use the 10-year Treasury Note as a benchmark for the long-term bond market.
* Gold represents the afternoon gold price as reported by the London Bullion Market Association. The gold price is set twice daily by the London Gold Fixing Company at 10:30 and 15:00 and is expressed in U.S. dollars per fine troy ounce.
* The Bloomberg Commodity Index is designed to be a highly liquid and diversified benchmark for the commodity futures market. The Index is composed of futures contracts on 19 physical commodities and was launched on July 14, 1998.
* The DJ Equity All REIT Total Return Index measures the total return performance of the equity subcategory of the Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) industry as calculated by Dow Jones.
* Yahoo! Finance is the source for any reference to the performance of an index between two specific periods.
* Opinions expressed are subject to change without notice and are not intended as investment advice or to predict future performance.
* Economic forecasts set forth may not develop as predicted and there can be no guarantee that strategies promoted will be successful.
* Past performance does not guarantee future results. Investing involves risk, including loss of principal.
* You cannot invest directly in an index.
* Consult your financial professional before making any investment decision.
* Stock investing involves risk including loss of principal.

Sources:
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-ecb-policy-bundesbank-idUSKBN19M3FM
http://www.barrons.com/articles/a-game-changing-week-for-markets-sees-nasdaq-fall-2-1498887177?mod=BOL_hp_we_columns (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/07-03-17_Barrons-A_Game-Changing_Week_for_Markets_Sees_NASDAQ_Fall_2_Percent-Footnote_2.pdf)
https://www.clevelandfed.org/our-research/indicators-and-data/yield-curve-and-gdp-growth.aspx
https://www.ft.com/content/d7c47dae-5dd7-11e7-9bc8-8055f264aa8b (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/07-03-17_FinancialTimes-Second_Quarter_Ends_with_Fierce_Rotation_Away_from_Tech_Stocks-Footnote_4.pdf)
http://www.cboe.com/blogs/options-hub/2017/06/02/vix-index-closes-below-10-again-as-professor-called-vix-level-the-biggest-financial-mystery
http://www.cboe.com/products/vix-index-volatility/vix-options-and-futures/vix-index/vix-historical-data (click on “VIX data for 2004 to present”)
http://www.sca.isr.umich.edu (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/07-03-17_SurveysOfConsumers-Final_Results_for_June_2017-Footnote_7.pdf)
http://blog.aaii.com/aaii-sentiment-survey-highest-level-of-neutral-sentiment-in-nearly-a-year/
https://www.frbatlanta.org/cqer/research/gdpnow.aspx
http://theweek.com/articles/463959/why-are-there-two-pronunciations-letter-g
https://www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2017/06/daily-chart-21 (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/07-03-17_TheEconomist-How_Do_You_Pronounce_GIF-Footnote_11.pdf)
https://www.usconstitution.net/constmiss.html
https://www.merriam-webster.com/about-us/americas-first-dictionary
https://www.ted.com/talks/anne_lamott_12_truths_i_learned_from_life_and_writing/transcript

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June 19, 2017

The Markets

All eyes on inflation!

Inflation is the way economists measure changes in the prices of goods and services. The United States has enjoyed relatively low inflation for a significant period of time. Last week, the consumer price index indicated inflation had moved lower in May.

Inflation is our focus because it is at the core of two very different opinions that currently are influencing markets and investors. A commentary on the Kitco Blog explained:

“One of the most important economic debates today is whether the economy will experience reflation or deflation (or low inflation) in the upcoming months. Has the recent reflation been only a temporary jump? Or has it marked the beginning of a new trend? Is the global economy accelerating or are we heading into the next recession?”

Another key factor is employment. Traditional economic theory holds when unemployment falls (i.e., when more people are employed) inflation will rise because demand for workers will push wages higher. That hasn’t happened yet in the United States even though unemployment has fallen significantly.

In fact, inflation remains stubbornly below the Federal Reserve’s 2 percent target, reported The Economist. Regardless, the Federal Reserve believes higher inflation is ahead, so it raised the Fed funds rate last week and indicated it was preparing to shrink its balance sheet if the economy continues to grow as expected.

There is a group that disagrees with the Fed. They believe inflation will remain low regardless of employment levels. Barron’s wrote:

“In the theoretical world, low unemployment threatens to unleash a torrent of inflation, which needs to be staved off by tighter monetary policies. Back in the real world, disruption, innovation, and competition relentlessly drive down prices while wage growth is hard to come by.”

The difference of opinion was apparent in stock and bond markets last week. In the bond market, yields on 10-year Treasuries moved lower after the Federal Reserve raised rates. In the U.S. stock market, the top-performing sectors were Industrials, which tend to do well when investors are optimistic about growth, and Utilities, which tend to do well when investors are worried about the future.

 

A CENTURY-OLD MEDICINE MAY HELP WITH AUTISM. Estimates from the Centers for Disease Control suggest one in every 68 American children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder. Few effective treatments have been found, but a medicine that has been around for more than a century may prove helpful.

The Economist reported a very small human trial – only 10 boys were involved – showed a drug used since 1916 to treat the sleeping sickness spread by tsetse flies, may help children with autism. The trial paired the participating boys by age, IQ, and their level of autism. In each pair, one boy received the drug and the other received a placebo:

“Every participant given suramin showed statistically significant improvements in their performance on the tests at seven days. Those on the placebo showed no significant improvement. At 45 days, the boys who were given the drug were performing better on the tests than they had before the infusion, but it was clear that as suramin was leaving their system, their autistic traits were returning.”

The study’s results were published in the Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology in late May; however, the research summary did not include parent’s personal statements. The study’s first author Dr. Robert Naviaux published those statements on his website.

One parent wrote, “Immediately after the infusion, a kind of inner cheerfulness started to come out. When we were walking back to the car, he was holding me hand. He started giggling and looked up at me and said, ‘I just don’t know why I’m so happy.’”

Another wrote, “In fact, his teachers at school were unaware of the trial and one day we got a note from the teacher asking about what we had changed. We were naturally concerned and when we asked they told us that, ‘He has completed 3 weeks of schooling in 3 days!’”

Let’s hope larger trials prove the drug to be safe and its positive effects enduring.

Weekly Focus – Think About It

“If you’ve met one person with autism, you’ve met one person with autism.”
–Dr. Stephen Shore, Autistic professor of special education at Adelphi University

 

* These views are those of Peak Advisor Alliance, and not the presenting Representative or the Representative’s Broker/Dealer, and should not be construed as investment advice.
* This newsletter was prepared by Peak Advisor Alliance. Peak Advisor Alliance is not affiliated with the named broker/dealer.
* Government bonds and Treasury Bills are guaranteed by the U.S. government as to the timely payment of principal and interest and, if held to maturity, offer a fixed rate of return and fixed principal value. However, the value of fund shares is not guaranteed and will fluctuate.
* Corporate bonds are considered higher risk than government bonds but normally offer a higher yield and are subject to market, interest rate and credit risk as well as additional risks based on the quality of issuer coupon rate, price, yield, maturity, and redemption features.
* The Standard & Poor’s 500 (S&P 500) is an unmanaged group of securities considered to be representative of the stock market in general. You cannot invest directly in this index.
* All indices referenced are unmanaged. Unmanaged index returns do not reflect fees, expenses, or sales charges. Index performance is not indicative of the performance of any investment.
* The Dow Jones Global ex-U.S. Index covers approximately 95% of the market capitalization of the 45 developed and emerging countries included in the Index.
* The 10-year Treasury Note represents debt owed by the United States Treasury to the public. Since the U.S. Government is seen as a risk-free borrower, investors use the 10-year Treasury Note as a benchmark for the long-term bond market.
* Gold represents the afternoon gold price as reported by the London Bullion Market Association. The gold price is set twice daily by the London Gold Fixing Company at 10:30 and 15:00 and is expressed in U.S. dollars per fine troy ounce.
* The Bloomberg Commodity Index is designed to be a highly liquid and diversified benchmark for the commodity futures market. The Index is composed of futures contracts on 19 physical commodities and was launched on July 14, 1998.
* The DJ Equity All REIT Total Return Index measures the total return performance of the equity subcategory of the Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) industry as calculated by Dow Jones.
* Yahoo! Finance is the source for any reference to the performance of an index between two specific periods.
* Opinions expressed are subject to change without notice and are not intended as investment advice or to predict future performance.
* Economic forecasts set forth may not develop as predicted and there can be no guarantee that strategies promoted will be successful.
* Past performance does not guarantee future results. Investing involves risk, including loss of principal.
* You cannot invest directly in an index.
* Consult your financial professional before making any investment decision.
* Stock investing involves risk including loss of principal.

Sources:
http://www.barrons.com/articles/bond-yields-are-going-up-right-not-so-fast-1497674052?mod=BOL_hp_we_columns (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/06-19-17_Barrons-Bond_Yields_are_Going_Up_Right-Not_So_Fast-Footnote_1.pdf)
http://www.kitco.com/commentaries/2017-06-16/Reflation-Deflation-and-Gold.html
http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/PhillipsCurve.html
https://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21723422-economists-and-federal-reserve-are-not-about-abandon-phillips (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/06-19-17_TheEconomist-Inflation_Has_Not_Yet_Followed_Lower_Unemployment_in_America-Footnote_4.pdf)
http://www.barrons.com/mdc/public/page/9_3063-economicCalendar.html (Click on U.S. & Intl Recaps, then “Central banks move markets”)
http://www.barrons.com/articles/is-the-federal-reserve-living-in-the-real-world-1497674080?mod=BOL_hp_we_columns (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/06-19-17_Barrons-Is_the_Federal_Reserve_Living_in_the_Real_World-Footnote_6.pdf)
http://www.barrons.com/articles/stocks-mostly-edge-forward-on-muddled-data-1497675744?mod=BOL_hp_we_columns (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/06-19-17_Barrons-Stocks_Mostly_Edge_Forward_on_Muddled_Data-Footnote_7.pdf)
https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html
http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21722732-it-was-only-initial-trial-suramins-effects-were-dramatic?zid=318&ah=ac379c09c1c3fb67e0e8fd1964d5247f (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/06-19-17_TheEconomist-A_Drug_Used_to_Treat_Sleeping_Sickness_May_Also_Help_with_Autism-Footnote_9.pdf)
https://health.ucsd.edu/news/releases/Pages/2017-05-26-century-old-drug-potential-new-approach-to-autism.aspx
http://naviauxlab.ucsd.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Parent-Statments.pdf
http://the-art-of-autism.com/favorite-quotes-about-autism-and-aspergers/

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June 5, 2017

The Markets

The bull market in U.S. stocks is getting really old!

In fact, this bull has been charging, standing, or sitting for more than eight years. In April, it became the second longest bull market in American history, according to CNN Money.

There are some good reasons the stock market in the United States has continued to trend higher. For one, companies have become more profitable. During the first quarter of 2017, companies in the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index reported earnings increased by 14 percent, year-over-year. That was the highest earnings growth rate since 2011, according to FactSet.

In addition, the economy in the United States has been chugging along at a steady pace. CIO Charles Lieberman wrote in Bloomberg View:

“…U.S. economic growth is continuing at a moderate pace, an economic recovery is finally underway in Europe, inflation is under control, corporate profits are rising, and there is some prospect for tax reform and deregulation, even if whatever gets implemented is less than what is really needed. These conditions imply continued growth in corporate profits.”

Last week’s employment report boosted both stock and bond markets. Financial Times opined the report was weak enough to ease pressure on bond rates and strong enough to boost share prices higher.

No one can say with certainty how long a bull market will last. Typically, bull markets are interrupted by corrections – declines in value of 10 percent or more. Historically, bulls have turned into bears, eventually. That’s why it’s important to employ investment strategies that manage risk and preserve capital even when markets are moving higher.

 

FRESH FROM THE ANNALS OF IMPROBABLE RESEARCH. Anyone who enjoys the Ig Nobel Prizes – which spur people’s interest in science, medicine, and technology by making them laugh and then making them think – may like The Annals of Improbable Research (AIR). An enthusiastically nerdy science humor magazine, the publication offers readers the opportunity to read about new and improbable things every other month.

During its 21-year history, AIR has covered a variety of topics, including:

• The Taxonomy of Barney. “In February 1994, we observed on television an animal which was there identified as a dinosaur, Barney. Its behavioral characteristics suggested that it was dissimilar to the diverse dinosaurian faunas that are so well documented…To test the hypothesis that Barney is a reptile descended from the true dinosaurs, we went into the field in order to capture and study a living specimen. This we accomplished with remarkable ease, as Barney was advertised to be appearing at a local shopping mall.”

• Horse Calculus. “The idea is that a heart is like a little battery, pushing weak electric currents in a three-dimensional pattern round the body…During each heartbeat, the vector (tip of the arrow) draws a loop – the heart loop – whose shape is a powerful diagnostic of health. Therefore it is useful to measure this loop…His specific question was: does the theory apply to a real horse or only to an ideal cylindrical horse…The moral of this is that applications of mathematical knowledge can be unexpected; you may find yourself taking a surface integral over a horse.”

• Which Feels Heavier – A Pound of Lead or a Pound of Feathers? “Which weighs more – a pound of lead or a pound of feathers?” The seemingly naive answer to the familiar riddle is the pound of lead. The correct answer, of course, is that they weigh the same amount. We investigated whether the naive answer to the riddle might have a basis in perception. When blindfolded participants hefted a pound of lead and a pound of feathers each contained in boxes of identical size, shape, and mass, they reported that the box containing the pound of lead felt heavier at a level above chance.”

Lurking beneath the unusual is some potentially useful scientific research.

Weekly Focus – Think About It

“Being a scientist is like being an explorer. You have this immense curiosity, this stubbornness, this resolute will that you will go forward no matter what other people say.”
–Sara Seager, Professor of Planetary Science and Physics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

* These views are those of Peak Advisor Alliance, and not the presenting Representative or the Representative’s Broker/Dealer, and should not be construed as investment advice.
* This newsletter was prepared by Peak Advisor Alliance. Peak Advisor Alliance is not affiliated with the named broker/dealer.
* Government bonds and Treasury Bills are guaranteed by the U.S. government as to the timely payment of principal and interest and, if held to maturity, offer a fixed rate of return and fixed principal value. However, the value of fund shares is not guaranteed and will fluctuate.
* Corporate bonds are considered higher risk than government bonds but normally offer a higher yield and are subject to market, interest rate and credit risk as well as additional risks based on the quality of issuer coupon rate, price, yield, maturity, and redemption features.
* The Standard & Poor’s 500 (S&P 500) is an unmanaged group of securities considered to be representative of the stock market in general. You cannot invest directly in this index.
* All indices referenced are unmanaged. Unmanaged index returns do not reflect fees, expenses, or sales charges. Index performance is not indicative of the performance of any investment.
* The Dow Jones Global ex-U.S. Index covers approximately 95% of the market capitalization of the 45 developed and emerging countries included in the Index.
* The 10-year Treasury Note represents debt owed by the United States Treasury to the public. Since the U.S. Government is seen as a risk-free borrower, investors use the 10-year Treasury Note as a benchmark for the long-term bond market.
* Gold represents the afternoon gold price as reported by the London Bullion Market Association. The gold price is set twice daily by the London Gold Fixing Company at 10:30 and 15:00 and is expressed in U.S. dollars per fine troy ounce.
* The Bloomberg Commodity Index is designed to be a highly liquid and diversified benchmark for the commodity futures market. The Index is composed of futures contracts on 19 physical commodities and was launched on July 14, 1998.
* The DJ Equity All REIT Total Return Index measures the total return performance of the equity subcategory of the Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) industry as calculated by Dow Jones.
* Yahoo! Finance is the source for any reference to the performance of an index between two specific periods.
* Opinions expressed are subject to change without notice and are not intended as investment advice or to predict future performance.
* Economic forecasts set forth may not develop as predicted and there can be no guarantee that strategies promoted will be successful.
* Past performance does not guarantee future results. Investing involves risk, including loss of principal.
* You cannot invest directly in an index.
* Consult your financial professional before making any investment decision.
* Stock investing involves risk including loss of principal.

Sources:
http://money.cnn.com/2016/04/29/investing/stocks-2nd-longest-bull-market-ever/
https://insight.factset.com/hubfs/Resources/Research%20Desk/Earnings%20Insight/EarningsInsight_060217.pdf
https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-05-30/stocks-rally-as-washington-burns-and-that-s-not-odd
https://www.ft.com/content/1fab9c52-bc35-31d8-a3a3-f428649ca203 (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/06-05-17_FinancialTimes-US_Stocks_Set_New_Records_as_Wall_St_Shrugs_Off_Disappointing_Jobs_Report-Footnote_4.pdf)
https://www.yardeni.com/pub/sp500corrbear.pdf
http://www.improbable.com/ig/ (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/06-05-17_Improbable-About_the_Ig-Footnote_6.pdf)
http://www.improbable.com/airchives/paperair/volume1/v1i1/barney.htm (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/06-05-17_Improbable-The_Taxonomy_of_Barney-Footnote_7.pdf)
http://www.improbable.com/airchives/paperair/volume16/v16i4/Horse_calculus.pdf (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/06-05-17_Improbable-Horse_Calculus-Footnote_8.pdf)
http://www.improbable.com/airchives/paperair/volume20/v20i5/Feathers-Research-Review-20-5.pdf (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/06-05-17_Improbable-Feathers_Research_Review-Footnote_9.pdf)
http://blog.ted.com/the-ted2015-conference-in-30-quotes/

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May 30, 2017

The Markets

Is preparing for the future more important than enjoying the present?

There is a lot to enjoy today. Last week, Financial Times wrote:

“Wall Street ended an impressive week on a steady note – eking out a tiny gain to a fresh record close – as oil prices recouped some of the previous day’s steep losses and the latest U.S. Gross Domestic Product data reinforced expectations for a June rate rise.”

In fact, U.S. equities have been performing well for some time. The Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 Index achieved new highs 18 times during 2016 and, so far in 2017, we’ve scored 20 closing highs, including three last week.

While it’s important to enjoy current gains in U.S. stock markets, it’s equally important to prepare for the future. Bull markets don’t continue forever. They often experience corrections. A correction during a bull market is a 10 percent decline in the value of a stock, bond, or another investment. Often, corrections are temporary adjustments followed by additional market gains, but they can be a signal a bear market or recession is ahead.

One investment professional cited by CNBC believes a correction may occur soon. “Gundlach expects the 10-year Treasury yield to move higher, and a summer interest rate rise should ‘go along with a correction in the stock market.’”

Barron’s cautioned strong employment numbers also may signal a downturn is ahead:

“Think about it: Jobs are a classic lagging indicator, and bouts of high unemployment and economic distress are often accompanied by falling stocks. By the time the economy improves enough to enjoy full employment, share prices will reflect that rosier outlook. That’s not to say stocks can’t do well following periods of full employment…Unemployment was 2.5 percent in 1953, and yet the market delivered big gains over the next seven years. But stocks happened to be very cheap in 1953, with a cyclically adjusted price-to-earnings ratio of just 11.6 times…That valuation is now pushing 29 times.”

There is no way to know when a correction or market downturn may occur, but if history proves out, one is likely at some point in the future.

 

ARE AMERICANS VACATION AVOIDERS? Project: Time Off reports Americans spent 16.8 days on vacation during 2016, on average. That was an improvement from 2015, when the average was 16.2, but it was well below the 20.3 days a year spent on holiday from 1978 through 2000.

The shortening of American vacations owes something to both fear and ambition, according to Project: Time Off:

“Americans are still worried about job security when it comes to taking time off. More than a quarter (26 percent) say they fear that taking vacation could make them appear less dedicated at work, just under a quarter (23 percent) say they do not want to be seen as replaceable, and more than a fifth (21 percent) say they worry they would lose consideration for a raise or promotion.”

While waiving a few vacation days may impress the boss, there are some significant economic consequences. For instance:

• Forfeiting 206 million vacation days in 2016 cost employees $66.4 billion in aggregate and about $604 individually.
• The increase in vacation day usage from 2016 to 2017 contributed $37 billion to the U.S. economy, helped create 278,000 jobs, and generated $11 billion in additional income across the country.

As it turns out, gender and job title are good predictors of the likelihood vacation days will remain unused. Last year, men were more likely than women to use all of their vacation days, even though women were more likely to say that vacation was extremely important.

The same was true of senior management. Company leaders believe corporate culture encourages vacation and often hear about the value of taking vacation, but are unlikely to use all of their vacations days.

Weekly Focus – Think About It

“The only people for me are the mad ones, the ones who are mad to live, mad to talk, mad to be saved, desirous of everything at the same time, the ones who never yawn or say a commonplace thing, but burn, burn, burn like fabulous yellow roman candles exploding like spiders across the stars.”
Jack Kerouac, American author

* These views are those of Peak Advisor Alliance, and not the presenting Representative or the Representative’s Broker/Dealer, and should not be construed as investment advice.
* This newsletter was prepared by Peak Advisor Alliance. Peak Advisor Alliance is not affiliated with the named broker/dealer.
* Government bonds and Treasury Bills are guaranteed by the U.S. government as to the timely payment of principal and interest and, if held to maturity, offer a fixed rate of return and fixed principal value. However, the value of fund shares is not guaranteed and will fluctuate.
* Corporate bonds are considered higher risk than government bonds but normally offer a higher yield and are subject to market, interest rate and credit risk as well as additional risks based on the quality of issuer coupon rate, price, yield, maturity, and redemption features.
* The Standard & Poor’s 500 (S&P 500) is an unmanaged group of securities considered to be representative of the stock market in general. You cannot invest directly in this index.
* All indices referenced are unmanaged. Unmanaged index returns do not reflect fees, expenses, or sales charges. Index performance is not indicative of the performance of any investment.
* The Dow Jones Global ex-U.S. Index covers approximately 95% of the market capitalization of the 45 developed and emerging countries included in the Index.
* The 10-year Treasury Note represents debt owed by the United States Treasury to the public. Since the U.S. Government is seen as a risk-free borrower, investors use the 10-year Treasury Note as a benchmark for the long-term bond market.
* Gold represents the afternoon gold price as reported by the London Bullion Market Association. The gold price is set twice daily by the London Gold Fixing Company at 10:30 and 15:00 and is expressed in U.S. dollars per fine troy ounce.
* The Bloomberg Commodity Index is designed to be a highly liquid and diversified benchmark for the commodity futures market. The Index is composed of futures contracts on 19 physical commodities and was launched on July 14, 1998.
* The DJ Equity All REIT Total Return Index measures the total return performance of the equity subcategory of the Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) industry as calculated by Dow Jones.
* Yahoo! Finance is the source for any reference to the performance of an index between two specific periods.
* Opinions expressed are subject to change without notice and are not intended as investment advice or to predict future performance.
* Economic forecasts set forth may not develop as predicted and there can be no guarantee that strategies promoted will be successful.
* Past performance does not guarantee future results. Investing involves risk, including loss of principal.
* You cannot invest directly in an index.
* Consult your financial professional before making any investment decision.
* Stock investing involves risk including loss of principal.

Sources:
https://www.ft.com/content/46aca00c-41b8-11e7-9d56-25f963e998b2 (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/05-30-17_FinancialTimes-S%26P_500_Inches_Up_to_Fresh_Record_Close-Footnote_1.pdf)
https://www.ft.com/content/7a71ac6c-ae8b-3df0-8b7b-5de3ee9ff949 (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/05-30-17_FinancialTimes-S%26P_500_Closes_at_Record_High_for_Third_Straight_Day-Footnote_2.pdf)
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/correction.asp
http://www.cnbc.com/2017/05/02/jeff-gundlach-sees-summer-correction-in-the-stock-market.html
http://www.barrons.com/articles/theres-something-manic-about-this-market-1495858813?mod=BOL_hp_we_columns (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/05-30-17_Barrons-Theres_Something_Manic_About_This_Market-Footnote_5.pdf)
http://www.projecttimeoff.com/state-american-vacation-2017
http://www.projecttimeoff.com/news/press-releases/american-vacation-usage-rises-dramatically-study-finds
http://www.shortlist.com/entertainment/books/the-40-most-powerful-literary-quotes#gallery-5

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May 22, 2017

The Markets

How much is too much?

There has been no shortage of drama since the new administration took office – legislative setbacks, controversial hiring and firing, and fiery tweets on various topics. Regardless, U.S. investors and markets remained stalwart until last week when the CBOE Volatility Index (a.k.a. the fear gauge) jumped 46 percent higher and markets declined.

Financial Times explained:

“…a range of stock benchmarks made their biggest single-day fall since November, as the political controversy over Donald Trump ties with Russia undermined investors’ faith in the administration’s ability to enact its pro-growth policies. Markets subsequently steadied, but investors are primed for further volatility as the White House faces the distraction of a lengthy inquiry led by an independent special counsel.”

Markets recovered some ground late in the week as the influence of Washington, D.C. drama was offset by strong earnings news. On Friday, FactSet reported first quarter earnings results were in for 95 percent of the companies in the Standard & Poor’s 500 (S&P 500) Index and 75 percent had beaten estimates. Altogether, corporate earnings were about 6.0 percent higher than expected.

Earnings performance was particularly strong for companies in the Information Technology, Healthcare, and Financials sectors, and relatively weak for companies in the Telecom Services, Real Estate, and Consumer Staples sectors.

Brace yourself. Next week may be bouncy. The Federal Reserve Open Market Committee will release minutes from its most recent meeting. In addition, we’ll receive the administration’s proposed budget, along with new economic data and consumer sentiment readings.


ARE YOU HELPING YOUR ADULT CHILDREN FINANCIALLY? In 2015, Pew Research investigated whether aging parents received more assistance from adult children or adult children received more assistance from parents. In the United States, Italy, and Germany, they found parents provide more financial assistance to their adult children than the adult children provide to their parents.

The survey found 39 percent of American parents had helped their adult children with errands, housework, or home repairs during the past twelve months, and 48 percent had helped with childcare. Almost two-thirds had provided monetary support. Financial help appeared to be contingent on parents’ circumstances. Those with higher household incomes were more likely to give money to adult children.

Becoming the ‘Bank of Mom and Dad’ can be a slippery slope, according to AARP Magazine. Since parent-child relationships can be emotionally fraught, it’s sometimes difficult to gauge when financial assistance is a good idea and when it’s not. Should you pay for a car repair? Help with the down payment on a home or apartment? Foot the bill for a grandchild’s private school or college? Fund a lavish wedding? Help with medical bills?

The AARP suggested answering four questions, using a scale of 0 to 5, may help parents determine whether to give money to an adult child. The questions are:

1. Will this investment add stability and security to my child’s life?
(0 = entirely optional; 5 = absolutely necessary)
2. Is this a short-term or one-time cash need, or is it something that could go on for years?
(0 = guaranteed, long-term payouts; 5 = absolutely just one time)
3. Is there risk in the investment beyond the cash outlay, such as financial liability on a contract or damage to your credit?
(0 = very high levels of risk; 5 = no additional risks)
4. Can you lend or give this money without fear of damaging your relationship with your child? Or, will it cause tensions or resentments for the people involved?
(0 = guaranteed tensions or resentments; 5 = everyone is happy)

If the combined answers total 13 or higher, the answer is yes, give money to your adult child. If the total is less than 13, you may want to think twice before opening your wallet.

Weekly Focus – Think About It

“Life is to be lived, not controlled; and humanity is won by continuing to play in face of certain defeat.”
–Ralph Ellison, American author of ‘Invisible Man’

* These views are those of Peak Advisor Alliance, and not the presenting Representative or the Representative’s Broker/Dealer, and should not be construed as investment advice.
* This newsletter was prepared by Peak Advisor Alliance. Peak Advisor Alliance is not affiliated with the named broker/dealer.
* Government bonds and Treasury Bills are guaranteed by the U.S. government as to the timely payment of principal and interest and, if held to maturity, offer a fixed rate of return and fixed principal value. However, the value of fund shares is not guaranteed and will fluctuate.
* Corporate bonds are considered higher risk than government bonds but normally offer a higher yield and are subject to market, interest rate and credit risk as well as additional risks based on the quality of issuer coupon rate, price, yield, maturity, and redemption features.
* The Standard & Poor’s 500 (S&P 500) is an unmanaged group of securities considered to be representative of the stock market in general. You cannot invest directly in this index.
* All indices referenced are unmanaged. Unmanaged index returns do not reflect fees, expenses, or sales charges. Index performance is not indicative of the performance of any investment.
* The Dow Jones Global ex-U.S. Index covers approximately 95% of the market capitalization of the 45 developed and emerging countries included in the Index.
* The 10-year Treasury Note represents debt owed by the United States Treasury to the public. Since the U.S. Government is seen as a risk-free borrower, investors use the 10-year Treasury Note as a benchmark for the long-term bond market.
* Gold represents the afternoon gold price as reported by the London Bullion Market Association. The gold price is set twice daily by the London Gold Fixing Company at 10:30 and 15:00 and is expressed in U.S. dollars per fine troy ounce.
* The Bloomberg Commodity Index is designed to be a highly liquid and diversified benchmark for the commodity futures market. The Index is composed of futures contracts on 19 physical commodities and was launched on July 14, 1998.
* The DJ Equity All REIT Total Return Index measures the total return performance of the equity subcategory of the Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) industry as calculated by Dow Jones.
* Yahoo! Finance is the source for any reference to the performance of an index between two specific periods.
* Opinions expressed are subject to change without notice and are not intended as investment advice or to predict future performance.
* Economic forecasts set forth may not develop as predicted and there can be no guarantee that strategies promoted will be successful.
* Past performance does not guarantee future results. Investing involves risk, including loss of principal.
* You cannot invest directly in an index.
* Consult your financial professional before making any investment decision.
* Stock investing involves risk including loss of principal.

Sources:
https://www.ft.com/content/83968832-3c42-11e7-821a-6027b8a20f23 (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/05-22-17_FinancialTimes-Global_Stocks_Rally_After_Midweek_Slide-Footnote_1.pdf)
https://www.ft.com/content/ff43e806-3c6c-11e7-821a-6027b8a20f23 (or go to https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/peakcontent/+Peak+Commentary/05-22-17_FinancialTimes-Enter_the_Trump_Fade_Brazils_Slump_and_the_Pound_at_%241.30-Footnote_2.pdf)
https://insight.factset.com/hubfs/Resources/Research%20Desk/Earnings%20Insight/EarningsInsight_051917.pdf
http://www.barrons.com/mdc/public/page/9_3063-economicCalendar.html?mod=BOL_Nav_MAR_hpp
https://about.bgov.com/blog/trumps-budget-aims-balance-steep-cuts-growth/
http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2015/05/2015-05-21_family-support-relations_FINAL.pdf
http://www.aarp.org/money/budgeting-saving/info-2016/bank-of-mom-and-dad.html
http://www.shortlist.com/entertainment/books/the-40-most-powerful-literary-quotes#gallery-2

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